On the Relationship between Art Design and Arts and Crafts in China (II)

April 29, 2019

3. The relationship between contemporary art design and traditional arts and crafts

(A) The era background of the two

Traditional arts and crafts are accomplished through manual craftsmanship and based on farming culture. It has the characteristics of an obvious agricultural era. Although there are also some folk art items, most of them are the products of a few bureaucrats and doctors. The aesthetic taste of Confucian scholars determines the direction and development of traditional arts and crafts. The art design is completed in the industrialization of large-scale production, based on the industrial civilization, it has the characteristics of a clear industrial age, serving the public, a strong sense of democracy.

The status of traditional handicraft practitioners underground is the result of paying attention to official culture to devalue civilian culture over the years. The feudal hierarchy in ancient China determined the state of craftsmanship. It is undeniable that the limitation of the cultural level of most craftsmen has led to the slow improvement and development of many craftsmanship and the loss of some of the craftsmanship. The artists of the art design have basically received better professional education, and their social status and working environment have been greatly improved. Focusing on the market in the design orientation, people-centered and systematic methodologies are the backing of the design, maintaining a free and autonomous state of creation.

(B) The aesthetics reflected by both

Compared with contemporary art design, aesthetics of traditional arts and crafts is essentially a comparison between the decorative beauty of manual technology and the functional beauty of mechanical technology. The beauty of craftsmanship often comes with personal tastes. Through personal spirits, it maintains the characteristics of experience and sensibility and decorates it as beauty. The functional beauty of mechanical technology is built on the basis of assembly lines, with practical functions as the ultimate goal, reflecting the technical beauty features of mass, standardization, harmony, unity and rationality. Functional beauty and technical beauty are the main contents of today's aesthetics of art design.

If arts and crafts is a combination of technology and art, then art design is a combination of science and art. Therefore, Mr. Li Yuzu extended the beauty of science on the basis of the beauty of the original design aesthetics and the beauty of technology. This also reflects that the art design is organically developed as a discipline.

Arts and crafts are original arts that are compatible with traditional agricultural and handicraft production methods and value models, and art design is a composite art that adapts to the era of industrialized information. As a combination of science and art, art design reflects the diversity of contemporary culture and humanity more than arts and crafts. Integration and interdisciplinarity are its characteristics.

(C) The education mode and professional setting of the two

Zi Cheng’s father and teacher and pupils are the main methods for the dissemination of traditional handicraft technology. The skilled craftsman has almost as much as he likes in the technology of his bank. Its handicraft inheritance method determines that it can only be a kind of “knowledge knowledge”. It emphasizes the accumulation of experience and lacks systematic theory. The generation of skilled craftsmen is just used to pressing. Experiences can only be met from one generation to the next, and the next generation. The contemporary theory of art design is a theoretical and systematic “coded knowledge” based on the Western philosophical system of thought. Even if it is separated from the face-to-face transmission of words and deeds, it can be written, written, or other. The media spreads. Art design has also introduced system theory as a guidance method for scientific research. The achievements of scientific research represented by modern systems theory have made people realize that contemporary design is a multi-level, multi-temporal network cross-structure that promotes people’s research methods and The way of thinking has produced fundamental changes. The basic professions of traditional arts and crafts include dyeing, decorating, ceramics, garments, special crafts, etc. The basic professions of contemporary art design are industrial design, packaging design, interior design, fashion design, print advertising, and so on. Therefore, both have a strong background in the professional category. It also reflects an indisputable fact: what the society needs, this organism called "arts and crafts" or "art design" will automatically adjust its professional settings to meet the needs of the times.

(four) the corresponding research object

The objects of arts and crafts are mainly handicrafts, while arts and design are mass produced industrial products. One is to convey the traditional idea of ​​Taoism, and the other is to reflect the design concept of modern people. The history of arts and crafts in the past was mostly about techniques and phenomena. It was mostly about the study of patterns and decorations, or it also emphasized the interpretation of materials. Therefore, some people think that the past history of craftsmanship is material history (4), and the design history may be more biased towards the history of appliances. It is from the standpoint of appliances that the research and discussion is about the form and function of specific appliances and the design ideas reflected from them. The purpose is to provide a sound reference system for modern design.

Corresponding to the arts and crafts is the Tao device, the concept of Daotai. Mr. Tan Dantong, the deputy director of the National Palace Museum, has a detailed discussion in his “The History of Chinese Art History”; Mr. Zhang Yuchang of Shanghai is in her doctoral thesis. In the course of summarizing the history of Chinese arts and crafts, the article also discusses the Taoist philosophy and demonstrates the viewpoint that "the instrument carries the Tao". The author believes that the doctrine of Taoism contains three categories: form, tract, and device. The relationship between the three categories is as follows: In the form of "Dao", the device is in the form of (and). In short, the device refers to the material carrier and the spiritual content of the Dobi, as opposed to the scope of the arts and crafts field. The issue of Tao and devices actually embodies the ideas in technology and the technologies in their thinking. The research object of art design is mainly man-made things. Artificial things are proposed by Mr. Liu Guanzhong, and the American management scientist and social scientist Herbert A. Simon has a similar formulation in his famous book "The Science of Human Things." The connotation is different. Mr. Liu's artificial things refer to the second natural humanization of the first nature. The natural things are called man-made things. They mainly refer to humanized natural things that contain human design ideas and creative ideas. Of course, according to the above point of view, it can be affirmed that the traditional arts and crafts are also human, because she includes the wisdom and wisdom of craftsmen and commissioners.

IV. Conclusion

From the above interpretation of Chinese arts and crafts and artistic design, it can be seen that in the extension of the concept, the content of ancient art design should be greater than that of traditional arts and crafts. For example, the Taoist ideas praised by the traditional field of history of arts and crafts are mostly limited to the official and court arts and crafts. In fact, there are many creation ideas in Chinese ancient science and technology and folk arts that are worthy of our exploration and rendition. . It should be said that "arts and crafts" and "art design" are all derived from the influence of modern western design culture and thoughts on China's design education. To associate a semantic symbol with its contextual background is a scientific and objective method of thinking. The introduction and thinking of western modern design concepts often form a divestment of traditional arts and crafts, and it is thought that one-finger art design is separate from traditional arts and crafts. This is a one-sided view. The development of modern art design does not imply a "general negation" toward the tradition, but the glory of traditional Taoist ideas is not "deathed" because of the rise of modern art design. Both are gradually tending to converge. As Mr. Zhang Daoyi said, “Some people put it against each other, and it's not necessary to judge right and wrong. I don’t think it is necessary.” After recognizing the relationship between arts and crafts and art and design, we naturally will not put the two in opposition and it is necessary to continue to The excellent tradition of craftsmanship maintained in China for half a century has been flourishing. However, the current situation is that how traditional arts and crafts protect their heritage after losing market and demand may require the support and administrative inclination of all levels of government departments. Otherwise, some private arts and crafts are already marginalized and aging. , loneliness, to the depths of the twilight." U5] This means that we will lose the rich cultural heritage of traditional arts and crafts. If we continue to wait and see, it will certainly become a regret for future generations.

Art design is a kind of creation activity and has certain aesthetic attributes and spiritual values. Design thought refers to the integration of metaphysical spiritual carriers that accompany and produce in the human creative creation process. It is to serve man-made objects and created objects. The sum of the creative thinking generated in the two-way alternation. The object and result of mankind's activities for life and production are the man-made objects of modern art design mentioned above and the devices of traditional arts and crafts. Therefore, as long as there is a creation, there is the idea of ​​creation—the existence of design ideas. This corresponds to traditional arts and crafts, and this design idea is included in the connotation of “Tao” we used to say. It should be said that the ancient design of China and the ancient Chinese science and technology have some intersections or associations in the object of study. In the past, however, in the history of arts and crafts, there has been little attention paid to the study of ancient scientific and technological devices. Today, it is necessary to carry out in-depth research on ancient Chinese designing devices to enrich and develop this part of the untouched virgin land. Therefore, what we call the study of ancient design thoughts is more emphasis on the design ideas of ancient science and technology relative instrument creation activities.

In short, artistic design and arts and crafts are both homogenous and heterogeneous. Studying the ideas of ancient Chinese design creation is to meet the needs of today's art and design education, is the call of the times, and it is also inevitable to expand from the history of arts and crafts to the theory of the history of art design.

Wu Wei School of Packaging Design, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology Information Source: Journal of Zhuzhou Institute of Technology

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